Hirohito was Emperor for 67 years. His reign was the longest in Japan’s recorded history. It began more than half a century after the Meiji Restoration (a key event in Japan’s push to modernize and westernize). Japan had experienced an industrial revolution. Its population had reached 60 million. A large proportion of the workforce was salaried employees at manufacturing and service companies in big cities. As urban culture matured, there was demand for mass media; Japan’s first radio broadcast was made in 1925. Later, a military coup attempt heralded the rise of militarism and totalitarianism. The army invaded China. Then in December 1941, Japan began a war with the United States and its allies. This was the Pacific War (the conflict in the Pacific theater of World War Two). Japanese authorities subjected citizens to economic and psychological control and extolled patriotism.