Pursuit of Future Television
The Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964 made a strong impression on the
public and demonstrated that the level of TV technology in Japan
was the highest in the world. Those in TV related industries in
Japan were envisioning the next generation of TV. STRL initiated
studies on high-definition television (HDTV) in 1964.
Research followed two tracks. One was to visualize future
TV from a thorough investigation of what was to be
expected of the future television system, as well as the
physical conditions of the system. The other approach was
to reexamine the kind of display, or video, to determine
the easiest and most desirable media for humans to watch.
This involved a thorough study of human audio-visual characteristics
and psychology. Among a number of options, STRL decided
on high-definition TV as the main direction for its research,
calling it simply HDTV. In 1985, this system was named Hi-Vision.
16:9 Ratio Derived from Human
Regarding the ratio between height and width of the display,
the aspect ratio, evaluations made using a slide projector
revealed that the most desirable aspect ratios are 5:3 or
6:3, wider than the 4:3 ratio then used for a standard TV
display. Later, the aspect ratio 16:9 was decided upon,
in consideration of its compatibility with movies.
From 1965 to 1975, advances were made in determining the
necessary number of scanning lines for HDTV. During this
time, the decision to go with an interlaced scanning system
was also made. These involved both film simulations and
actual TV systems.
Developments in Imaging, Recording,
Transmission, and Displays
STRL determined NHKs provisional studio standard for
HDTV around 1970. This standard was 1125 scanning lines,
a 2:1 interlaced ratio, and a 5:3 aspect ratio. Based on
this standard, work was initiated on imaging systems, recording
devices, transmission systems, and large-screen display
In 1969, the first experimental high-definition TV system
was exhibited at the STRL Open House. It used a 1.5-inch
vidicon and a 27-inch black-and-white Braun tube. For an
image pickup tube, a 2-inch return beam Saticon was also
STRL began the development of a color camera system around
1970, resulting in a small, low power consumption, 2/3-inch
Saticon camera in 1985, and a high-sensitivity high-definition
TV camera with a 2/3-inch HARP (High-gain Avalanche Rushing
amorphous Photoconductor) tube in 1988, which made capturing
images outdoors at night feasible. In 1998, an HDTV camera
using a HARP tube was produced on a commercial basis.
and audio-visual properties
2. Exhibition in the United States (1981)
System used in experiments to investigate the relationship between
viewing angle and sense of reality.
This system measures a wide-field induced effect by projecting
various visual images onto a semi-spherical dome (wide-field
induced effect: a phenomenon that causes a viewer to subconsciously
lean their body in a certain direction when an inclined
wide-field image, such as an image containing a horizon,
26-inch high-definition TV (combined 3 Braun tubes)